Privacy-Enhanced Mail↝ (PEM) is a de facto file format for storing and sending cryptographic keys, certificates, and other data, based on a set of 1993 IETF standards defining “privacy-enhanced mail.”
Many cryptography standards use ASN.1 to define their data structures, and
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) to serialize those structures. Because DER
produces binary output, it can be challenging to transmit the resulting files
through systems, like electronic mail, that only support ASCII. The PEM format
solves this problem by encoding the binary data using Base64. PEM also defines
a one-line header, consisting of
-----BEGIN , a label, and
-----, and a
one-line footer, consisting of
-----END , a label, and
The label determines the type of message encoded. Common labels include
CERTIFICATE REQUEST, and
PEM data is commonly stored in files with a
.pem suffix, a
suffix (for certificates), or a
.key suffix (for public or private keys).
The label inside a PEM file represents the type of the data more accurately
than the file suffix, since many different types of data can be saved in a
A PEM file may contain multiple instances. For instance, an operating system might provide a file containing a list of trusted CA certificates, or a web server might be configured with a “chain” file containing an end-entity certificate plus a list of intermediate certificates.
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is a standard interface description language for defining data structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a cross-platform way. It is broadly used in telecommunications and computer networking, and especially in cryptography.
X.690 is an ITU-T standard specifying several ASN.1 encoding formats:
- Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
- Canonical Encoding Rules (CER)
- Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)
In cryptography, X.509 is a standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/SSL, which is the basis for HTTPS, the secure protocol for browsing the web. They are also used in offline applications, like electronic signatures. An X.509 certificate contains a public key and an identity (a hostname, or an organization, or an individual), and is either signed by a certificate authority or self-signed. When a certificate is signed by a trusted certificate authority, or validated by other means, someone holding that certificate can rely on the public key it contains to establish secure communications with another party, or validate documents digitally signed by the corresponding private key.
In cryptography, PKCS stands for “Public Key Cryptography Standards”. These are a group of public-key cryptography standards devised and published by RSA Security LLC, starting in the early 1990s.
Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard. Used to sign and/or encrypt messages under a PKI.
Private-Key Information Syntax Standard. Used to carry private certificate keypairs (encrypted or unencrypted).